Art courses:



Origami - make a miracle with your own hands!

Origami (Jap. "Folded paper") is an ancient art of folding paper figures. The art of origami was born in ancient China, where paper was invented.

Initially, origami was used in religious ceremonies. For a long time this kind of art was only available to members of the upper classes, being a symbol of good manners. Only after the Second World War, origami came to America and Europe, where immediately found its fans.

History of Origami

There are many theories about the origin of origami. One thing is certain - for the most part the art developed in Japan. At the moment, origami became truly international in art.

Teachers in many countries has noticed that the origami:

• learns to make consistent actions

• develops the ability to control by the brain subtle movements of hands and fingers

• improves the imagination and ability to mentally operate with bulky items

• learn to "read" drawings which add up figures

• introduces in practice the basic geometric concepts

• develops confidence in abilities and capabilities

• stimulates the development of memory

• teaches to focus

What affects origami?

For your children:

Almost all the teachers involved in teaching origami point positive impact of this activity on the success of their students and all subjects. In particular, origami helps to develop reading and math skills, and improves handwriting. Folding exercises contribute to the development of psychological contact between the teacher and students. Students learn school subjects better, especially mathematics, geometry. And most importantly, a lot of energy is directed in the right direction, developing the ability, the way of thinking and perception, which contribute not only to improve the performance, but also the development as a whole.

The transformation of the paper into a toy children perceived as an exciting game, not realizing that in the process of folding solve very serious mathematical problems: find parallels and diagonals, divide the whole into parts, receive various types of triangles and polyhedrons, easily orient on a sheet of paper, develop fingers motility, logic, imagination, learning to create and love all living things.

For you:

A fascinating journey to the Land of Origami will give you an unforgettable impression of a miracle taking place before your eyes and with your direct participation. Magically a square of ordinary paper turns into a butterfly, a flower, a dinosaur, a toy, a puzzle or a character of a puppet theater. You will get acquainted with the secrets of origami. You will comprehend the basics of the ancient and extremely modern art of origami, learn why origami is called the "technology of the XXI century" and how it is used by designers and solar telescopes, the inventors of portable bicycles and mopeds, teachers and psychologists in their work. Such a meeting could start a new hobby, developing attention, memory, imaginative and logical thinking. Classes of origami make a person self-confident and increase his circle of friends.

For executives and top managers origami helps to increase the speed of thought, to see the situation multifaceted, make decisions faster and better.

On special "family" master classes you can enjoy the art of origami with your family, children and friends!

Tips for parents:

All the children in the world like to communicate with paper. They are fascinated by the ability to change the shape of the paper. It is easily torn, wrinkled, bent, twisted, and so on. But few children know that flexing the sheet in half, they make the first steps in the great world of Japanese art - Origami.

Origami is folding of a variety of shapes from colored square sheets of paper. Of course at first you can face some problems with a more complicated toy, but gradually you will learn how to do it step by step.

The simplest ways of constructing craft are based on the ability to fold the square in half, vertically or horizontally, and consistent bending the paper, first lengthwise, then crosswise. All these actions are marked with conventional signs, arrows. Carefully read the alphabet of origami and start making toys for children and with children.

Types and techniques of origami:

Classic origami
Modular origami


3D origami



Ikebana simply means flower arrangement.

Why study ikebana?

Classes of ikebana is the elite education, it was always prestige;

Ikebana develops high artistic taste, refined manners;

Women doing Ikebana are the source of pride for his men;

Ikebana helps to find harmony;

Ikebana is a way to unleash your creativity and become happier.

In the classroom, participants comprehend the subtleties of flower arrangement, touching the very origins of nature, studying her reflection in our world.

The arrangement is made of fresh flowers.

Ikebana in a brief

Ikebana is the art, in which by the will of a man in harmony flowers meet, twigs, stems, leaves, fruits, herbs and other plant materials. The essence of ikebana is to convey the beauty and diversity of nature through one - two branches, or even one flower. Ikebana literally means flowers that are alive. This activity is for patient people, in Japan it is learnt art for years, but at home, anyone can make an experiment and do this fun thing, especially because there are plenty of materials, it's only your wish and your imagination.

History of Ikebana

Ikebana originated in Japan in the XV century and originally had a religious orientation, as an offering to the gods in Japanese temples. It has long been the custom in Japan to use flowers and herbs plucked in the field or in the mountains for hair ornaments, clothes and offerings to various deities.

With Buddhism the tradition of Buddha image decoration with flowers appeared. Thus, Ikebana was originally a sacred action and born based on the ancient rituals of the national Japanese religion Shinto (Way of the Gods), appreciating nature and temple offerings (kuge) adopted in Buddhism.

According to the legend, during the reign of Emperor Yomey (VI century), the Crown Prince Shotoku active follower and promoter of Buddhism traveled in search of a suitable place for a new temple, deciding to take a dip in the pond, he hung on the willow an amulet depicting Neurine Kannon (goddess of mercy). Coming out of the water, he could not remove the amulet ingrown in a tree and therefore considered it a sacred place. There Temple Siundzantyo Hodera ("the peak of the mountain “purple clouds"”) was built, which is often called Rokkakudo because of its hexagonal shape. Altar compositions attracted the attention of for its simplicity and elegance. Being among the harmonious beauty of nature, people came to the updated understanding of their own existence. The compositions of the time, created on the basis of flowers and branches, called Tatebana.

Along with Tatebana in the era of Muromatti Rikka style arises and develops. Gradually this style (Rikka) gained huge popularity among the nobility and the military class (Shogunate).

In Momoyama era tea ceremony appeared and became widespread, which placed new demands on floral arrangements. Introduced in this period style was called Nageirebana. In it cut flowers were loosely based on the edge of the vessel and appeared in its natural form. Later compositions for the tea ceremony became known as Tyabana - ikebana of one flower that embodies the aesthetic perception of "elegant simplicity". This work decorating tea room, along with calligraphy served as an element symbolizing peace of mind. Flowers were chosen the most simple, humble; sometimes even a single plant. In such compositions the ideas of Zen Buddhism were embodied, seeing a lot in a small lot, preferring simple and natural.

Styles and symbols in ikebana

New views changed the life style and consequently the interior of Japanese houses, and with the advent of niche – tokonoma, Syoka style reflecting the natural beauty of the plants growing in nature.

With the entry of Japan to the Meiji era (XIX c.), the Government introduces a course teaching ikebana in schools for girls. At the same time, European lifestyle spread in Japan demanded new compositions for the interior. Styles Moribana and Nageire were developed in response to these demands.

Later, under the influence of contemporary art and the development of new technologies style Dziyuka appeared – the style of free expression of feelings and emotions of the person. In accordance with the conditions of modern society the styles Rikka and Sseka changed.

There are different styles of ikebana and this division is based on the principles of location in the space and the choice of different vessels. Basic branches may be in the composition of the 2-9, but mostly they are three, and they symbolize three elements: the sky, a man and the Earth. The symbol of the sky is the longest branch, and the symbol of the earth - the shortest. Probably the most ancient of all styles is Rikka translated as arranged flowers, the foundation is usually a pine, plum or another branch, and the remaining eight are arranged around elements that form a sphere. It is considered the most difficult style of ikebana. Normally, it is a monumental arrangement and can reach the height of 1.5 m and the width of 1 m. It was used to decorate churches and other large buildings.

Next, a very popular style of ikebana is Nageire, translated as the flowers thrown into the water. Flowers, as if by chance and casually placed in a container (vase). The vase is high with a narrow neck. Expressed beauty of a branch or stem.

Style Moribana, is also very popular, composed of several kinds of colors, located in a flat and wide vase. What is important in this style - a variety of colors and beauty of the landscape.

Summer compositions are abundant and lush often with forest and meadow flowers. Autumn is time of grace for the imagination: the time of different colors of leaves, chrysanthemums and ripe vegetables and fruits, sunflowers. Winter materials for ikebana are bare branches of deciduous trees and conifers, pine and spruce are widely used.

Proper environment only set off the beauty of ikebana, the tablecloth or coating composition is selected of neutral colors. You can set the bowl on the stand: the special black or red (brown) a board, cardboard, wood saw cut, paper. Arrangements standing on the table should not be high but low located is better to do from higher and direct materials. When you look at these touching and beautiful songs from very simple and accessible elements, you better understand the expression: beauty will save the world!

Ikebana - is the wisdom that comes with time. First, you always want to add a lot of things, in fact, learning the art of ikebana is training to remove the excess. We cut branches, cut the leaves, because even if the sheet is very beautiful, it is too large. If you draw a parallel with the person, we always want to have a lot of things. Ikebana teaches to be content with the minimum. Green is the personification of spring and at the same time symbolizes the east, because it is the place where spring and day are born. Green is associated with the planet Jupiter, which has a mysterious blue-green color. Fire represents the red - the color of the summer, the south and the planet Mars.

White symbolizes the autumn — ripening of white rice, it corresponds to the primary elements of metal (incandescent), it is associated with the west and the whitish color of the moon.

The most dark, dull time of year - winter - associated with black water (dark deep waters), with the least bright planet Mercury.

The symbolism of yellow (golden) color is associated with the end of summer, which embodies the life-giving force of the elements, the earth.

The symbolism of flowers and trees, and their combinations in ikebana forms a complex language. For example, pine and rose - mean the eternal youth and longevity, pine and Rodeo (Omoto) - youth and eternity, pine and peony - youth and prosperity, peony and bamboo - prosperity and peace, flowers, cabbage (habotan), chrysanthemum, orchid - joy. Japan is a symbol of chrysanthemum flowers. Naturally, these flowers are a frequent theme of Ikebana: the art of making compositions of chrysanthemums Japanese masters do with the utmost care. It is important to note that some plants are never included in the holiday song. Such, for example, autumn maple leaves, tea leaves, purple flowers, Japanese roses, peonies, unstable species of evergreens, which are traditionally used for decoration of the altar in a Buddhist temple.

The Japanese have three important concepts associated with the aesthetic consciousness of the world: khans (admiration of flowers), Tsukimi (admiring the moon) and Yukimi (admiring the snow).

In Japanese culture, ikebana often acts as a mediator in communication between people. Ikebana is given to the family and friends as a sign of good wishes. Guests are invited to enjoy ikebana created to honor him and express joy at his arrival. Ikebana is prepared to mark a special celebration or just use it as an object for a friendly chat. Rules of etiquette in Japanese society do not allow you to look straight in the eyes - it can be considered as a disrespect or inquisitiveness. The best way to establish contact is a flower arrangement.

Marble painting

"Beautiful letter deserves a beautiful paper"

Japanese Proverb

Marble painting is the most ancient art that ever existed on Earth. Born in Turkey, it reached its peak in the country of the rising sun, Japan. Marble painting is a personification of the rising sun, combining the ancient with the newest: a technique known for over 2,000 years, and paints, which are the result of the highest technology, which penetrate at the molecular level as a basis, retain their brightness and color saturation for a long time.


The marble painting (marbling dye) - painting technique, but rather painting with randomly mixed colors.

Suminagashi - literally "floating inkwells", using special insoluble ink (ink).


- Meditation techniques

- Creation of unique paintings, the story of which cannot be repeated, even by the author

- Unusual gift wrapping paper

- Business cards (especially popular in Japan)

- Unique fashion design


1. "Suminagashi" paints and Japanese ink.

2. Japanese brush. One for each color.

3. The mediator to control the paint.

4. A bowl, which must be greater than the size paper or material that you are going to use. Recommended for black meditative techniques for paintings with complex elements - white or transparent.

5. Newspapers.

6. The paper / tissue. Training paper, often used for calligraphy; Japanese rice paper, and so on.

Design variants


Go (traditional Chinese: 圍棋; simplified Chinese: 围棋; pinyin: wéiqí; Japanese: 囲碁; rōmaji: igo; Korean: 바둑; romaja: baduk; literally: "encircling game") is a board game involving two players, that originated in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago. It was considered one of the four essential arts of a cultured Chinese scholar in antiquity. The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan(c. 4th century BC).


The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan (c. 4th century BC), referring to a historical event of 548 BC. It is also mentioned in Book XVII of the Analects of Confucius and in two books written by Mencius (c. 3rd century BC). Go was originally played on a 17×17 line grid, but a 19×19 grid became standard by the time of the Tang Dynasty (618–907). Legends trace the origin of the game to the mythical Chinese emperor Yao (2337–2258 BC), who was said to have had his counselor Shun design it for his unruly son, Danzhu, to favorably influence him. Other theories suggest that the game was derived from Chinese tribal warlords and generals, who used pieces of stone to map out attacking positions. In China, Go was considered one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman, along with calligraphy, painting and playing the musical instrument guqin.

The game reached Japan in the 7th century CE—where it is called "go" or "i-go" — the game became popular at the Japanese imperial court in the 8th century, and among the general public by the 13th century. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu re-established Japan's unified national government. In the same year, he assigned the then-best player in Japan, a Buddhist monk named Nikkai (né Kanō Yosaburo, 1559), to the post of Godokoro (Minister of Go). Nikkai took the name Honinbo Sansa and founded the Honinbo Go school. Several competing schools were founded soon after. These officially recognized and subsidized Go schools greatly developed the level of play and introduced the dan/kyu style system of ranking players. Players from the four schools (Honinbo, Yasui, Inoue and Hayashi) competed in the annual castle games, played in the presence of the shogun.

Traditional equipment


The Go board (generally referred to by its Japanese name goban (碁盤)) typically measures between 45 and 48 cm (18 and 19 in) in length (from one player's side to the other) and 42 to 44 cm (17 to 17 in) in width. Chinese boards are slightly larger, as a traditional Chinese Go stone is slightly larger to match. The board is not square; there is a 15:14 ratio in length to width, because with a perfectly square board, from the player's viewing angle the perspective creates a foreshortening of the board. The added length compensates for this. There are two main types of boards: a table board similar in most respects to other gameboards like that used for chess, and a floor board, which is its own free-standing table and at which the players sit. The traditional Japanese goban is between 10 and 18 cm (3.9 and 7.1 in)


A full set of Go stones (goishi) usually contains 181 black stones and 180 white ones; a 19×19 grid has 361 points, so there are enough stones to cover the board, and Black gets the extra odd stone because that player goes first. Traditional Japanese stones are double-convex, and made of clamshell (white) and slate (black). The classic slate is nachiguro stone mined in Wakayama Prefecture and the clamshell from the Hamaguri clam; however, due to a scarcity in the Japanese supply of this clam, the stones are most often made of shells harvested from Mexico. Historically, the most prized stones were made of jade, often given to the reigning emperor as a gift. Traditional stones are made so that black stones are slightly larger in diameter than white; this is to compensate for the optical illusion created by contrasting colors that would make equal-sized white stones appear larger on the board than black stones.


The bowls for the stones are shaped like a flattened sphere with a level underside. The lid is loose fitting and upturned before play to receive stones captured during the game. Chinese bowls are slightly larger, and a little more rounded, a style known generally as Go Seigen; Japanese Kitani bowls tend to have a shape closer to that of the bowl of a snifter glass, such as for brandy. The bowls are usually made of turned wood. Mulberry is the traditional material for Japanese bowls, but is very expensive; wood from the Chinese jujube date tree, which has a lighter color (it is often stained) and slightly more visible grain pattern, is a common substitute for rosewood, and traditional for Go Seigen-style bowls. Other traditional materials used for making Chinese bowls include lacquered wood, ceramics, stone and woven straw or rattan. The names of the bowl shapes, "Go Seigen" and "Kitani", were introduced in the last quarter of the 20th century by the professional player Janice Kim as homage to two 20th-century professional Go players by the same names, of Chinese and Japanese nationality, respectively, who are referred to as the "Fathers of modern Go".

Basic rules

Two players, Black and White, take turns placing a stone (game piece) of their own color on a vacant point (intersection) of the grid on a Go board. Black moves first. If there is a large difference in skill between the players, Black is typically allowed to place two or more stones on the board to compensate for the difference (see Go handicaps). The official grid comprises 19×19 lines, though the rules can be applied to any grid size. 13×13 and 9×9 boards are popular choices to teach beginners. Once placed, a stone may not be moved to a different point.

Vertically and horizontally adjacent stones of the same color form a chain (also called a string or group) that cannot subsequently be subdivided and, in effect, becomes a single larger stone. Only stones connected to one another by the lines on the board create a chain; stones that are diagonally adjacent are not connected. Chains may be expanded by placing additional stones on adjacent intersections, and can be connected together by placing a stone on an intersection that is adjacent to two or more chains of the same color.

A vacant point adjacent to a stone is called a liberty for that stone. Stones in a chain share their liberties. A chain of stones must have at least one liberty to remain on the board. When a chain is surrounded by opposing stones so that it has no liberties, it is captured and removed from the board.

The ko rule: Players are not allowed to make a move that returns the game to the previous position. This rule, called the ko rule prevents unending repetition. While the various rule-sets agree on the ko rule prohibiting returning the board to an immediately previous position, they deal in different ways with the relatively uncommon situation in which a player might recreate a past position that is further removed.


Shogi — also known as Japanese chess or the Generals' Game


It is not clear when chess was brought to Japan. The earliest generally accepted mention of shogi is Shin Saru Gakuki (新猿楽記) (1058–64) by Fujiwara Akihira. The oldest archaeological evidence is a group of 16 shogi pieces excavated from the grounds of Kōfuku-ji in Nara Prefecture. As it was physically associated with a wooden tablet written on in the sixth year of Tenki (1058), the pieces are thought to date from that period. These simple pieces were cut from a writing plaque in the same five-sided shape as modern pieces, with the names of the pieces written on them.

The dictionary of common folk culture, Nichūreki (二中歴) (c. 1210–21), a collection based on the two works Shōchūreki (掌中歴) and Kaichūreki (懐中歴), describes two forms of shogi, large (dai) shogi and small (shō) shogi. These are now called Heian shogi (or Heian small shogi) and Heian dai shogi. Heian small shogi is the version on which modern shogi is based.

Around the 13th century the game of dai shogi developed, created by increasing the number of pieces in Heian shogi, as was sho shogi, which added the rook, bishop, and drunken elephant from dai shogi to Heian shogi. Around the 15th century, the rules of dai shogi were simplified, creating the game of chu shogi in a form close to the modern game. It is thought that the rules of standard shogi were fixed in the 16th century, when the drunken elephant was removed from the set of pieces. There is no clear record of when drops were introduced, however.

In the Edo period, shogi variants were greatly expanded: tenjiku shogi, dai dai shogi, maka dai dai shogi, tai shogi, and taikyoku shogi were all invented. It is thought that these were played to only a very limited extent, however. Both standard shogi and Go were promoted by the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1612, the shogunate passed a law giving endowments to top shogi players (Meijin (名人)). During the reign of the eighth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune, castle shogi tournaments were held once a year on the 17th day of Kannazuki, corresponding to November 17, which is Shogi Day on the modern calendar.

The title of meijin became hereditary in the Ōhashi and Itō families until the fall of the shogunate, when it came to be passed by recommendation. Today the title is used for the winner of the Meijin-sen competition, the first modern title match. From around 1899, newspapers began to publish records of shogi matches, and high-ranking players formed alliances with the aim of having their games published. In 1909, the Shogi Association (将棋同盟社) was formed, and in 1924, the Tokyo Shogi Association (東京将棋同盟社) was formed. This was an early incarnation of the modern Japan Shogi Association[ja] (日本将棋連盟 nihon shōgi renmei), or JSA, and 1924 is considered by the JSA to be the date it was founded.





A player's

promotion zone (green)

The starting setup

of shogi

Most shogi pieces can move only to an adjacent square. A few may move across the board, and one jumps over intervening pieces. Shogi pieces capture the same as they move.

Every piece blocks the movement of all other non-jumping pieces through the square it occupies. If a piece occupies a legal destination for an opposing piece, it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the opposing piece. The capturing piece may not continue beyond that square on that turn.

It is common to keep captured pieces on a wooden stand (or komadai) which is traditionally placed so that its bottom left corner aligns with the bottom right corner of the board from the perspective of each player. It is not permissible to hide pieces from full view. This is because captured pieces, which are said to be "pieces in hand" (持ち駒 mochi goma?), have a crucial impact on the course of the game.

The knight jumps, that is, it passes over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, without an effect on either. It is the only piece to do this.

The lance, bishop, and rook are ranging pieces: They can move any number of squares along a straight line limited only by intervening pieces and the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by removing it from the board and replacing it with the moving piece. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece must stop short of that square; if the friendly piece is adjacent, the moving piece may not move in that direction at all.

All pieces but the knight move either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. These directions cannot be combined in a single move; one direction must be chosen.

Normally when moving a piece, a player snaps it to the board with the ends of the fingers of the same hand. This makes a sudden sound effect, bringing the piece to the attention of the opponent. This is also true for capturing and dropping pieces. On a traditional shogi-ban, the pitch of the snap is deeper, delivering a subtler effect.


– Japanese

K – Latin

A king moves one square in any direction, orthogonal or diagonal.

Gold general

– Japanese

G – Latin

A gold general moves one square orthogonally, or one square diagonally forward, giving it six possible destinations. It cannot move diagonally backwards.

Silver general

– Japanese

S – Latin

A silver general moves one square diagonally, or one square straight forward, giving it five possible destinations.

Promoted silver

– Japanese

+ S – Latin

A promoted silver (narigin) moves the same as a gold general.


– Japanese

N – Latin

A knight jumps at an angle intermediate to orthogonal and diagonal, amounting to one square straight forward plus one square diagonally forward, in a single move. Thus the knight has two possible forward destinations. The knight cannot move to the sides or in a backwards direction.

Promoted knight

– Japanese

+ N – Latin

A promoted knight (narikei) moves the same as a gold general.


– Japanese

L – Latin

A lance moves any number of squares directly forward. It cannot move backwards or to the sides.

Promoted lance

– Japanese

+ L – Latin

A promoted lance (narikyō) moves the same as a gold general.


– Japanese

P – Latin

A pawn moves one square straight forward. It cannot retreat. Unlike international chess pawns, shogi pawns capture the same as they move.

Promoted pawn

– Japanese

+ P – Latin

A promoted pawn (tokin) moves the same as a gold general.


– Japanese

R – Latin

A rook moves any number of squares in an orthogonal direction.

Promoted rook

– Japanese

+ R – Latin

A promoted rook ("dragon king", Ryūō) moves as a rook or as a king, but not as both on the same turn.


– Japanese

B – Latin

A bishop moves any number of squares in a diagonal direction.

Promoted bishop

– Japanese

+ B – Latin

A promoted bishop ("dragon horse", Ryūma) moves as a bishop or as a king, but not as both on the same turn.


Captured pieces are retained in hand, and can be brought back into play under the capturing player's control. On any turn, instead of moving a piece on the board, a player may select a piece in hand and place it—unpromoted side up and facing the opposing side—on any empty square. The piece is then one of that player's active pieces on the board and can be moved accordingly. This is called dropping the piece, or simply, a drop. A drop counts as a complete move.

A drop cannot capture a piece, nor does dropping within the promotion zone result in immediate promotion. Capture and/or promotion may occur normally, however, on subsequent moves of the piece.

A pawn, knight, or lance may not be dropped on the furthest rank, since those pieces would have no legal moves on subsequent turns. For the same reason, a knight may not be dropped on the penultimate (player's 8th) rank.

There are two additional restrictions when dropping pawns:

Nifu (Japanese: 二歩): A pawn cannot be dropped onto a file (column) containing another unpromoted pawn of the same player (promoted pawns do not count). A player with an unpromoted pawn on every file is therefore unable to drop a pawn anywhere. For this reason it is common to sacrifice a pawn in order to gain flexibility for drops.

Uchifuzume (Japanese: 打ち歩詰め): A pawn cannot be dropped to give an immediate checkmate. (Although other pieces may be dropped to give immediate checkmate.) A pawn may, however, be dropped to give immediate check.

It is common for players to swap bishops, which oppose each other across the board, early in the game. This leaves each player with a bishop in hand to be dropped later. The ability for drops in shogi give the game tactical richness and complexity. The fact that no piece ever goes entirely out of play accounts for the rarity of draws.


When a player's move threatens to capture the opposing king on the next turn, the move is said to give check to the king; the king is said to be in check. If a player's king is in check, that player's responding move must remove the check if possible; if no such move exists, the checking move is also checkmate (tsumi 詰み) and immediately wins the game. The losing player should resign out of courtesy at this point, although in practice this rarely occurs, as players normally resign as soon as a loss is deemed inevitable.

To announce "check!" in Japanese, one says "ōte!" (王手). This is an influence of international chess[citation needed] and is not required, however, even as a courtesy.

In professional and serious amateur games, a player who makes an illegal move loses immediately.

There are two other possible, if uncommon, ways for a game to end: repetition (千日手 sennichite) and impasse (持将棋 jishōgi):

Repetition: If the same game position occurs four times with the same player to move, either player loses if his or her moves during the repetition are all checks (perpetual check), otherwise the game is considered a draw. For two positions to be considered the same, the pieces in hand must be the same as well as the positions on the board. The rule used to be that it happened if a sequence caused three repetitions.

Impasse: The game reaches an impasse if both kings have advanced into their respective promotion zones and neither player can hope to mate the other or to gain any further material. If this happens, the winner is decided as follows: Each rook or bishop, promoted or not, scores 5 points for the owning player, and all other pieces except kings score 1 point each. A player scoring fewer than 24 points loses. (If neither player has fewer than 24, the game is no contest—a draw.) Jishōgi is considered an outcome in its own right rather than no contest, but there is no practical difference.

As this impasse generally needs to be agreed on for the rule to be invoked, a player may refuse to do so, on the grounds that the player could gain further material or position before an outcome has to be decided. If that happens, one player may force jishōgi upon getting his king and all his pieces protected in the promotion zone.